Typescript: why you should use unknown instead of any

From time to time, we come across situations where the type isn't known beforehand, i.e. could be anything. Before TS v3, we would use the any type for such types. But this comes with a few tradeoffs, like losing any type safety provided by Typescript.

Take the following example for instance:

const x: any = {
  a: "a-value",
  b: "b-value"

You can access the properties of the object above, i.e. x.a and x.b and everything would work as expected. The problem is that if you tried to access x.c value, Typescript would not throw an error, since the object x can be anything.

const c = x.c

As you can see, this can be a source of many bugs, since common errors which Typescript would catch during build time will be allowed through. This is because when you use any type, you opt out of type checking.

Why unknown?

The unknown type was introduced in version 3 of typescript as an accompanying type to any. The unknown type, when assigned to a variable, means that a variable type is not known.

And typescript doesn't allow you to use a variable of unknown type unless you either cast the variable to a known type or narrow its type. Type narrowing is the process of moving a less precise type to a more precise type. You can learn more about Type narrowing in Typescript here.

Take the following example.

const x: unknown = 1;

if we tried to square x above without narrowing the type, typescript will throw the following error:

Object is of type 'unknown'.

To fix the above error, we can use type guards to check if it's a number before squaring it.

if(typeof x === "number") {
  console.log(x * x);

The same thing with the initial example, if we changed the type to unknown and tried to access any of the properties, typescript would throw an error.

Typescript doesn't allow you to use an unknown type before casting it.

You would need to cast it, in order to typescript to allow you to use it.

const x: unknown = {
  a: "a-value",
  b: "b-value"

console.log((x as {a: string; b: string; }).b)

As you can see from the above examples, the unknown type forces you to determine what a variable typed as unknown is, either through type casting or type narrowing. This in turn leads to a better program, as typescript can then type checking the resulting type, leading to a more type-safe program.


In this article, we learned about the unknown type and why we should use it to write more type-safe typescript programs. We also learned why you should avoid using type any unless absolutely necessary.

If you found this article informative and would like to keep learning, visit my new series on Typescript - A Byte of Typescript. A Byte of Typescript is a new series that I will be publishing on a regular basis to help you demystify Typescript.